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Machine Translation

An Introduction to Machine Translation.
W.J. Hutchins and H. Somers. Academic Press. 1992.

Readings in Machine Translation.
Somers, Harold and Nirenburg, Sergei and Wilks, Yorick.
MIT Press. Amsterdam 2002.

Machine Translation: A Knowledge-based Approach.
Nirenburg, Sergei and Carbonell, Jaime and Tomita, Masaru and Goodman, Kenneth.
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. 2000.

Verbmobil: a translation system for face to face dialog.
M. Kay and J.M. Gavron and P. Norvig.
CSLI Publications. Stanford, California. 1994.

  • Multilinguality

  • Technology Background Info - John Hutchins on MT and computer-based translation tools
  • The Soldiers are in the Coffee -- An Introduction to Machine Translation
  • Martin Kay: Machine Translation: The Disappointing Past and Present
  • The Translation Guide
  • Machine Translation : An Introductory Guide
  • Hutchins' Compendium of Translation software
  • Laurie's Links (from Machine Translation News International)
  • Links on Machine Translation

  • Dalle Molle Institute for Semantic and Cognitive Studies (ISSCO)
  • linguatec Sprachtechnologien GmbH
  • Groupe d'Étude pour la Traduction Automatique (GETA)
  • Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
  • Natural Language Laboratory (NatLang)
  • Language Technologies Institute (LTI)
  • Center for Sprogteknologi (CST)
  • GROUP Technologies AG
  • IBM T.J. Watson Research Center
  • The European Association for Machine Translation (EAMT)
  • Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (AMTA)
  • Asian-Pacific Association for Machine Translation (AAMT)
  • International Association for Machine Translation (IAMT)

  • Harold Somers
  • Christian Boitet
  • Makoto Nagao
  • Sergei Nirenburg
  • Hiyan Alshawi
  • Jun-ichi Tsujii
  • John Hutchins
  • Martin Kay

  • EUROTRA (Eurotra)
  • Pangloss (Pangloss)
  • The Core Language Engine

  • The LOGOS Machine
  • Linguatec Personal Translator
  • Systran Information and Translation Technologies
  • List of Machine Translation systems on the market (w/ links to companies and products)
  • SDL Free Tanslation
  • Babel Fish Translation
  • The Language Site: Online Dictionaries & Free Translation Tools (

Machine Translation (MT) is the fully automatic translation from one human language into another one. Machine translation has been worked on since the 1950s. There are a number of commercial products available and in daily use, but there are still open research problems. Tranfer-based MT has a set of transfer rules for each language pair, so that n*(n-1) rule sets are necessary for MT between n languages. In contract, interlingua-based MT uses a language-independent representation into which all source languages are analysed and from which all target languages is generated. Most practically usable MT systems are tranfser-based. Recently, there have been interestinv developments in statistical MT algorithms which are trained on parallel corpora of translated texts, and are very useful for constructing MT systems for new language pairs.


Automated Translation; Automatic Translation; Computer Translation